Every successful city makes deals and provides benefits to their best developers in order to build out their city successfully. Somehow they understand that this takes great resources in terms of accessing capital from the banks and that they must make it as low risk as possible.
Friday, September 30, 2016
Every successful city makes deals and provides benefits to their best developers in order to build out their city successfully. Somehow they understand that this takes great resources in terms of accessing capital from the banks and that they must make it as low risk as possible.
The Donald needed to get those bonuses as in the front end of a highly leveraged build out a mere $15,000,000 can make all the difference in avoiding a thirty year multi million dollar per year drain that stops the deal. He still took on the risk of a successful build. It is his good fortune and attention to detail that he normally does not lose right there.
We can be sure that his competitors see costs and problems that he is best able to avoid which is why these tax breaks appear.
Remember Olympia and York?. Much richer than the Donald, they miscalculated in London while literally creating a new city center in Canary Wharf. It should be blindingly obvious that you do not strand the top developers unless you want no developers which then drives the cost of building to a level sufficient to offset the real risk.
In the end these types of slanted stories represents ignorant jealousy at its worst. Any goat can pick the winners after the fact and carp on the excess profit but never be there when the hat is passed around to break sod.
A Trump Empire Built on Inside Connections and $885 Million in Tax Breaks
SEPT. 17, 2016
Donald J. Trump, left, with Mayor Ed Koch, center and New York Gov. Hugh L. Carey, pointing to a rendering of what would become the Grand Hyatt Hotel, in June 1978. A crucial factor behind the hotel’s construction was 40-year tax break that has cost New York City $360 million to date.CreditAssociated Press
The way Donald J. Trump tells it, his first solo project as a real estate developer, the conversion of a faded railroad hotel on 42nd Street into the sleek, 30-story Grand Hyatt, was a triumph from the very beginning.
The hotel, Mr. Trump bragged in “Trump: The Art of the Deal,” his 1987 best seller, “was a hit from the first day. Gross operating profits now exceed $30 million a year.”
But that book, and numerous interviews over the years, make little mention of a crucial factor in getting the hotel built: an extraordinary 40-year tax break that has cost New York City $360 million to date in forgiven, or uncollected, taxes, with four years still to run, on a property that cost only $120 million to build in 1980.
The project set the pattern for Mr. Trump’s New York career: He used his father’s, and, later, his own, extensive political connections, and relied on a huge amount of assistance from the government and taxpayers in the form of tax breaks, grants and incentives to benefit the 15 buildings at the core of his Manhattan real estate empire.
Since then, Mr. Trump has reaped at least $885 million in tax breaks, grants and other subsidies for luxury apartments, hotels and office buildings in New York, according to city tax, housing and finance records. The subsidies helped him lower his own costs and sell apartments at higher prices because of their reduced taxes.
Mr. Trump, the Republican nominee for president, has made clear over the course of his campaign how proud he is that “as a businessman I want to pay as little tax as possible.”
While it is impossible to assess how much Mr. Trump pays in personal or corporate income taxes, because he has refused to release his tax returns, an examination of his record as a New York developer shows how aggressively he has fought to lower the taxes on his projects.
Mr. Trump successfully sued the administration of Mayor Edward I. Koch after being denied a tax break for Trump Tower, his signature building on Fifth Avenue. Two decades later, in a lawsuit that spanned the administrations of Mayors Rudolph W. Giuliani and Michael R. Bloomberg, he won a similar tax break for Trump World Tower, a building on First Avenue with some of the city’s highest-priced condominiums in 2001.
The tax breaks for those two projects alone totaled $157 million.
The tax break at the 44-story Trump International Hotel and Tower at Columbus Circle came to $15.9 million.
No possible subsidy was left untapped. After the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, Mr. Trump lined up a $150,000 grant for one of his buildings near ground zero, taking advantage of a program to help small businesses in the area recover, even though he had acknowledged on the day of the attacks that his building was undamaged.
“Donald Trump is probably worse than any other developer in his relentless pursuit of every single dime of taxpayer subsidies he can get his paws on,” said Alicia Glen, Mayor Bill de Blasio’s deputy mayor for housing and economic development, who first battled Mr. Trump when she worked in Mr. Giuliani’s administration.
In seeking those subsidies, Mr. Trump is not that different from many other developers. But the level of subsidies he has received along with his doggedness in claiming them seem at odds with his rhetoric as an outsider candidate who boasts of his single-handed success and who has denounced what he calls the pay-to-play culture of politics and a “rigged” system of government.
.This is an excellent discourse and needs to be shared with those on a spiritual path. The mysteries are shared through channeling from the spirit world and are generally consistent. Their revelation however then interpreted has been the source of all religions. The communion turns out to be often muddy and confused and totally misunderstood by those who have not made the basic transition to acceptance of a real spiritual component.
We see just that today with the majority of the population accepting spirit as mostly imaginary and taking faith in church or community or scripture, all of which is bizarre to an initiate. An initiate actually should have a true experience.
I personally meditate regularly. This mostly allows my mind to enter the middle state at least and to allow me to see pastel colors with my eyes closed. This is neither impressive nor convincing. Yet I also see true streaks of gold as well at times which is much more convincing. So far so good. We know that this is a welcome and healthy practice to be cherished.
Once though i saw an egg shell break open and i was staring into the inner sun. This cannot be produced by physical means in a laboratory. Had the radiation been as rough as the physical sun, i would have been blinded. Yet i forced myself to stare at it as long as it held.
That is certainly enough proof that this all has ample merit.
Reading this it is obvious that understanding remains childish at best for even initiates.
Secret Mysteries of the Sun Revealed
17 Sep 2016 07:01 AM PDT
By Wayne Purdon
From 1209-1249 one of the worst genocides in history was conducted against the Cathars, a heretical sect in southern France. Pope Innocent III, promising gold and indulgences (the remission of punishment due for sins) in exchange for the blood of the Cathars, sent 30,000 crusaders into France to massacre the Cathars and their supporters.
The Cathars were hunted, tortured, burned at the stake and savagely murdered by the Church’s hired killers. Estimates place the total number of Cathars and sympathisers murdered between 300,000 and 1,000,000 men, women and children. Throughout this bloodbath, an amazing phenomenon was witnessed. The Cathars did not express fear, anger or pain, but only bliss, despite the most horrendous atrocities committed against them. What were they on?
According to William Henry in Mary Magdalene: The Illuminator, it was a psychoactive substance produced by the brain – the Cathars had learned the techniques necessary to produce it from the secret teachings of Jesus. It was called Christos (anointing oil) by the Essenes, who passed on their secrets to Jesus from Moses, who had obtained them in Egypt from descendants of the banished Atonite priests of Akhenaton.
These teachings involve the power of the sun and the power of the spoken word and constitute what I call “the mysteries of the sun.” They were part of the Egyptian, Babylonian and Greek mysteries, and the Gnostic teachings of the early Christians and secret societies. They have been given to every culture by great adepts as means of enlightening the minds of the people and freeing them from the darkness of ignorance and superstition.
In this article, I will briefly examine the life and teachings of the founders of various mystery schools in the Middle East and Mediterranean area from the Pharaoh Thutmose III to Omraam Mikhail Aivanhov. There were other mystery schools in India, China, Peru and elsewhere, but the ones I have chosen represent a continuity that spanned millennia and formed the spiritual roots of the Judeo-Christian heritage.
The story of the mysteries of the sun is as old as mankind and as new as the latest scientific breakthrough. In 1882, Ignatius Donnelly published Atlantis: The Antediluvian World. In this book, he argued convincingly that Atlantis had established colonies in Peru, Egypt and elsewhere and that the mythologies and mysteries of these peoples represented the original religion of the Atlanteans, which was a form of sun worship.
He wrote, “The religion of the Atlanteans, as Plato tells us, was pure and simple; they made no regular sacrifices but fruits and flowers; they worshipped the sun. In Peru a single deity was worshipped, and the sun, his most glorious work, was honoured as his representative. Quetzalcoatl, the founder of the Aztecs, condemned all sacrifice but that of fruits and flowers. [We can see how far the Aztec religion degenerated over the centuries to the low point of human sacrifice by the time of the Conquest.] The first religion of Egypt also was pure and simple; its sacrifices were fruits and flowers; temples were erected to the sun, Ra, throughout Egypt. In Peru the great festival of the sun was called Ra-mi.”
Between pre-dynastic Egypt and the eighteenth dynasty, the “pure and simple” solar religion of Egypt became very corrupt and complicated. There were several sun gods and a whole host of minor gods. The priesthood was rich and powerful and the people depended on them for magic amulets, praying to the gods on their behalf and giving them a proper elaborate send-off into the afterlife. Fruits and flowers were no longer fitting sacrifices; animals took their place.
Enter Pharaoh Thutmose III. A younger son of Amenhotep I, he owed his rule to the intervention of the priesthood of Amen-Ra who, in a religious ritual invoking the will of Amen-Ra, appointed him pharaoh, even though he was not in line for the succession. Thutmose realised that the priesthood was becoming too powerful and sought to curb their power by outwardly paying obeisance to Amen-Ra, but secretly worshipping Aton and supporting a separate priesthood of Aton at Heliopolis who were loyal to the throne.
Under his rule, Thutmose III permitted the common people to indulge in all their fanciful beliefs and superstition such as magic amulets. He believed that a gradual change in the existing religious beliefs could be more easily and permanently accomplished by establishing a secret mystery school, the students of which would put into practice higher standards. He wanted to gradually infuse into Egyptian religion from the top down those mysteries, myths and rites that would raise the people to a higher understanding and morality.
Thus, in 1489 BCE he founded a secret mystery school, the Order of the Rose Cross, which the Rosicrucians claim descent from and which still exists today. Members of this mystery school were called the Therapeutea, meaning “physicians of the soul.” The sungazing Essene sect of Alexandria later adopted this name and the rosy-cross symbol.
William Henry, in The Healing Sun Code, linked the rosy-cross and the Rosicrucian secrets with the “rising of the Healing Sun, the source of life and wisdom.” I recently talked to a woman who studied Egyptology for 25 years and knew about Thutmose III and the Rosicrucians. She told me that she once knew a Rosicrucian lady, who every time she felt ill would face the sun and do a special breathing exercise in which she would breath in the fire of the sun to burn impurities in her body. She lived to be very old. This technique was part of the secret teachings of the Rosicrucians, which they were very careful not to reveal to the uninitiated.xf
Another technique used by Thutmose III and members of his order was the use of healing rods while sungazing (see Figure 1). These were copper and zinc tubes that contained hardened coal and magnetite respectively. They were reintroduced to the world by the Russian mystic Count Stefan Colonn Walewski, who was a member of a sungazing mystery school in the Caucasian Mountains. They amplify the current that passes through the body between the sun and earth while sungazing, enhancing meditation and quickening healing and the development of psychic powers.
Thutmose III’s son and grandson continued with the mystery school and the cult of Aton, but it wasn’t until his great grandson, Akhenaton, took the throne that things came to a head.
The Revolution of Akhenaton
In 1369 BCE, Amenhotep IV took over the reins of Egypt from his ailing father Amenhotep III. During his upbringing, he was educated at the Temple of the Sun at On (Heliopolis) where the priests instilled in him a devotion to Aton. When he became pharaoh, he was given the secret mysteries of the sun handed down from his great grandfather. He learned that Aton was the one true, self-created, unmanifest God and that most of the other gods, including Amen-Ra, were man-made. Early in his reign, he changed his name to Akhenaton, meaning “the servant of Aton.” Unlike his great grandfather, he had no tolerance for spiritual ignorance.
Akhenaton initiated a change in the religious climate from a fear-based polytheism with its death cult, magic amulets, numerous idols, animal sacrifice, and secretive rituals of a powerful priesthood to a more devotional religion, which was free of graven images, obsession with the afterlife, and magic; which emphasised reverence for sunlight and cleanliness, and simple burial; and which allowed ordinary citizens to freely worship in open-air temples with offerings of fruits, flowers and incense, as was done in the original solar religion of Egypt. Aton’s temples had no idols or graven images other than the one Akhenaton devised – a sun disk from which proceeded rays, the ends of which terminated in graceful hands. Some of these hands held the ankh, the symbol of life, to the nostrils of his sungazing worshippers.
This symbolism shows that Akhenaton understood the relationship between sunlight, prana and breath. He knew that sunlight is the source of all life upon earth. This was not worship of the physical sun but worship of one God, a supreme deity, whose spirit was in heaven and whose physical manifestation was the sun – the symbol of life. It changed the worship of the sun as a god to the worship of God symbolised by the sun. Paintings and carvings of Aton were always accompanied with a sort of hieroglyphic footnote (seen at the top of Figure 4, page 56), stating that it was just a representation of the All-encompassing Creator.
Thus, Akhenaton established the first monotheistic religion by elevating Aton over Amen-Ra and other gods. His mother, Tiya, did much to mediate and stem the tide of controversy caused by his bold opposition to the powerful priesthood of Amen-Ra. However, after she died, he took the offensive and ordered his army to disband the priesthood and deface their false gods.
Akhenaton loved to officiate at ceremonies as the high priest of Aton. The following quote from a decree made by Akhenaton upon the founding of his capital city, Akhetaton, shows that morning sungazing was a daily ritual of Atonism:
“Every eye beholds him without hindrance while he fills the land with his rays and makes everyone to live. With seeing whom my eyes are satisfied daily when he rises in this temple and fills it with his own self by means of his rays, beauteous with love, and embraces me with them in life and power forever and ever.”
During these ceremonies, Akhenaton and his congregation would sing his Hymn to Aton. Although the vast majority of Egyptians did not give much credence to Atonism, and Akhenaton’s court followed the rituals of the outer religion out of a sense of duty, there existed an inner circle of about 300 initiates who learned from Akhenaton the mysteries of the sun. Among these were Joseph the son of Jacob, who Robert Feather, in The Mystery of the Copper Scroll of Qumran, claims was Akhenaton’s vizier Nakhte.
The Bible records that Joseph married Asenath the daughter of Potiphera, a priest of Aton in Heliopolis, and archaeologists discovered a private chapel to Aton in the ruins of Nakhte’s home in Akhetaton. Robert Feather thinks that after Akhenaton’s death, some of these initiates went to the sun temple of Heliopolis and others, including Joseph and his family, went to Elephantine Island in the land of Cush (Ethiopia), where they built another sun temple and established a branch of Judaism that exists to this day.
The Mysteries Formed the Basis of the Judeo-Christian Tradition
After the death of Akhenaton, the teachings of Atonism, its rituals and precepts, were almost completely destroyed by fanatics of the established religion. This has been the fate of every mystery teaching involving the sun in the past. Most historians and religious writers think that Akhenaton’s monotheism was a brief aberration in a long tradition of Egyptian polytheism and that it died with him.
But, buried in the pages of historical and scriptural texts are hints that his ideas survived in the Jewish faith. For example, Psalm 104 is almost identical to the Hymn to Aton. They also survived in the secret teachings of the Essene and Therapeut Brotherhoods, which were associated with early Christianity.
In the History of Egypt, the Egyptian priest Manetho wrote, “Moses, a son of the tribe of Levi, educated in Egypt and initiated at Heliopolis, became a High Priest of the Brotherhood… He was elected by the Hebrews as their chief and he adapted to the ideas of his people the science and philosophy which he had obtained in the Egyptian mysteries when he established a branch of the Egyptian Brotherhood in his country, from which descended the Essenes. The dogma of an ‘only God’, which he taught, was the Egyptian Brotherhood interpretation and teaching of the Pharaoh who established the first monotheistic religion known to man [Akhenaton]. The traditions he established in this manner were known completely to only a few of them, and were preserved in the mysteries of the secret societies, the Therapeutea of Egypt and the Essenes.”
After returning from Heliopolis, Moses became an annoyance to the priests of Amen-Ra and the court of Ramses II because of his Atonistic ideas. The historian Josephus records that Moses was sent on a military expedition to Cush in an effort by Pharaoh’s courtiers to get rid of the “dissident.” There he not only found a wife but another outpost of Atonism on Elephantine Island. Robert Feather thinks that it was in the wilderness of Cush that Moses saw the burning bush and received his mission.
Flavia Anderson, in The Ancient Secret: Fire from the Sun claimed that the burning bush was actually a small golden tree with a crystal that reflected sunlight so brightly that it appeared to be on fire. A similar talisman, called a punchao, was used by the Incas to put worshippers in a trance so that they could see and communicate with beings of light.
Anderson also relates this golden tree to the Urim and Thummin (perfect light) of the Jews, which was a crystal set in a golden stand, and by which the high priest communicated with God. Anderson thinks that Moses encountered this golden tree during an initiation in the sun temple of Heliopolis. But it’s more likely that he saw it in the sun temple of Elephantine Island right before he returned to Egypt. It’s also likely that some of the Atonite priests who were descendants of Joseph and his family joined Moses in his mission. The Bible records that there were two rival factions of priests during the Exodus. One faction had Egyptian names such as Korah, Dathan, Abiram and On.
In The Secret Initiation of Jesus at Qumran, Robert Feather shows how the descendants of these Egyptian priests, originally appointed at the time of Akhenaton, could have maintained their cohesion down to the beginning of the Qumran Essenes (610 BCE). When they entered Canaan, they settled around Shiloh and so became known as Shilonite priests. They became prominent around the time of Ezekial (589 BCE), Onias IV (160 BCE) and Jesus (4 BCE). These were also times when the Essenes were active. The Qumran Essenes, based on the Shilonite priests, came to have a much purer Judaism that rejected animal sacrifice, idols, amulets and burial with worldly goods which crept into the Judaism of the rest of the Israelites. During the Exodus, these priests were pro-Moses and against the priests of Aaron. It is likely that the priests of Aaron, who backslid into idolatry of the golden calf (the Egyptian goddess Hathor) while Moses was on the mountain, may have been responsible for reintroducing another Egyptian practice of holocaust sacrifice, prohibited by Atonism. On Mount Sinai, God gave Moses the first set of tablets to present to the Hebrews. Figure 2 (page 55) is a detail from a painting by Beccafumi. It shows Moses receiving the tablets from the sun, which is depicted as an opening in the sky.
However, when he came down the mountain and saw how the people had lapsed into idolatry, he realised they weren’t ready for what was on the tablets. So he smashed the tablets and went back up the mountain where God engraved ten simple commandments on a second set of tablets.
What could have been on the first set? Perhaps the solar mysteries! In any case, the mysteries were handed down by word of mouth from Moses to the Shilonite priests to the Essenes.
Archeologists found in the catacombs of Rome a drawing of Jesus holding a rod of power when raising Lazarus from the dead (Figure 3, page 55), showing that early Christians understood that the source of Jesus’ power came from the sun. The Bible records that just before Jesus raised Lazarus, he “lifted up his eyes” to the sun and prayed. The rod is a symbol of the life force, which every Egyptian sun god and sun gods from Babylonia, India and Peru are shown wielding in paintings and wall carvings, such as in Figure 5.
Many scholars are now coming around to the realisation that Jesus was a member of the Qumran Essene movement and that many of his teachings are similar to the Essene teachings. The Essenes and Therapeuts considered themselves to be the children of light and so did the early Christians.
According to Gene Savoy in his book The Essaei Document: Secret Teachings of an Eternal Race, Jesus received the Essenes’ secret teachings, which he calls the paradosis, meaning a divinisation process by which one became immortal. Savoy hints at sungazing being a key factor in this secret teaching.
He writes: “That the Essaei [Essenes] faced the sun at these times [sunrise and sunset] suggests that the sun was used as an intermediary by which men of the earth were linked by ‘cords of light’ with heaven… and were nurtured on a divine food upon which the angels fed…”
The Therapeuts believed that pure souls returned to the sun and that sunlight indeed is the heavenly, incorruptible food of the soul.
Savoy’s “cords of light” linking everyone can be thought of as an energy grid. The sun is one part of this energy grid; the earth is the other. Savoy wrote elsewhere: “The followers of Mithra gathered on the summits or stood in the waters, lifting their hands in prayer before the rising sun…” Savoy also mentioned in Project X that sun worshippers in Peru would stand on the summits of mountains or sun temples. This made me think of the vortices and ley lines of the earth grid, which are focal points and lines of electromagnetic energy usually found on high points on the earth’s surface and in stream beds.
Richard Leviton and Robert Coons, in “Ley Lines and the Meaning of Adam,” a chapter fromAnti-Gravity and the World Grid, claimed that the electromagnetic system of our bodies, the entire biosphere and the earth grid are part of a much larger solar system grid and it’s all connected. And the energy that powers this grid is the Light of God. They wrote, “The landscape temple made of stones and crystal… linked Heaven and Earth through Man. The terrestrial temple also functioned as a Grid Door by which human consciousness… could actually exit this plane and enter ‘the realm of the Gods’ [what William Henry called ‘the dimension of the blessed’]. Through this Grid Door, the Gods could also channel their spiritual vibrations and messages.”
Perhaps that’s how God channelled the mysteries of the sun and then the Ten Commandments to Moses on the terrestrial temple of Mt. Sinai, as depicted in Figure 2. It’s significant that key events in Jesus’ ministry occurred on the peaks of mountains and in streams (his baptism, his last temptation, the sermon on the mount, his transfiguration, his death, and his ascension).
Jesus passed on the Essene secret teachings on the mysteries of the sun to his disciples, including Mary Magdalene. The early Christians, who were not privy to these teachings, at first worshipped the spirit of Christ in the sun, but around the third century they lapsed into a personality cult of Jesus worship, which has continued to this day.
Fragments of these secret teachings can be found in the Dead Sea scrolls, in the apocryphal text known as the Pistis Sophia, and in the Essene Gospel of Peace, which was hidden in the Vatican library for centuries before Edmond Bordeux Szekely discovered it in 1928. In the Pistis Sophia, an ancient gospel suppressed for over a thousand years and ignored by the orthodox churches even after its publication in the last century, Jesus, after his resurrection, elaborates on the solar mysteries and how necessary they are for entering the kingdom of heaven:
“Ye are to seek after the mysteries of the Light, which purify the body of matter and make it into refined light exceedingly purified. Amen I say unto you… I have torn myself asunder and brought unto them all the mysteries of the Light, that I may purify them… else would no soul of the total race of men have been saved, and they would not be able to inherit the Kingdom of the Light…”
How this purification occurs is hinted at in this further passage: “Now, therefore, he who shall receive the mysteries of the baptisms, then they becometh a great, exceedingly violent, wise fire and it burneth up the sins and entereth into the soul secretly and consumeth all the sins which the counterfeiting spirit hath made fast on to it.”
In the Essene Gospel of Peace, Jesus gives a teaching on the purifying role of sunlight in this baptism of fire. He tells the sick after instructing them on fasting, “And if afterward there remain within you aught of your past sins and uncleanness, seek the angel of sunlight… For I tell you truly, holy is the angel of sunlight who cleans out all impurities and makes all evil-smelling things of a sweet odour. None may come before the face of God, whom the angel of sunlight lets not pass. Truly, all must be born again of the sun and of truth, for your body basks in the sunlight of the Earthly Mother, and your spirit basks in the sunlight of the truth of the Heavenly Father.”
The receiving of this fire through sungazing with arms upraised in a Y formation or bent at the elbow and hands spread out and facing the sun was called by the Greeks “fire blooming” because the radiance or essence of the sun thus channelled burned away impurities in the solar plexus, which, by the way, is associated with the sun and with fire. One can find wall carvings, paintings, statues, woodcuts and photographs of sun worshippers from all over the world – Hindus, Muslims, American Indians, ancient Egyptians, Medieval monks, Russians, Incas, and even aborigines in prehistoric petroglyphs – all with upraised arms. William Henry wrote inMary Magdalene: The Illuminator that when Jesus taught his disciples the Lord’s Prayer, he also taught them this prayer position, which he learned from the Egyptians, who called it the Ka position (Figure 6, page 57). Moses also learned it from the Egyptians and used it to invoke the Light of God during the Israelites’ battle with the Amalekites. Significantly, the battle was won at sunset.
This leads us to consider another part of the mysteries revealed by the Pistis Sophia, which is a certain power of the spoken word. The soul, in order to be cut free from the counterfeit spirit, must utter “the mystery of the undoing of the seals and of all the bonds.” This is the science of the spoken word, the uttering of sacred mantras, prayers and songs that remove or restrain the evil self, the “karmic records” of the individual.
These spiritual sciences and techniques were not revealed to all the faithful. According to the Pistis Sophia, the mysteries were to be given only to those initiates who proved themselves worthy through years of testing. They were also kept secret because of the threat of persecution.
The Mysteries Survive Persecution During the Dark Ages
In Lost Light, Alvin Boyd Kuhn wrote that sun worship “was the heart’s core of all religion and philosophy everywhere before the Dark Ages obscured the vision of truth… The dreadful shadows of the Dark Age will not end until the bright glow of the solar wisdom is released once more to enlighten benighted modernity.”
During the Dark Ages, the mysteries of the sun survived and were passed down through the Knights Templar, Cathars, Paulicians, Bogomils and other Gnostics. Many of these saints were brutally murdered by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches in an attempt to suppress their teachings, which threatened the Churches’ established authority.
One of the most inspired Gnostics was Saul of Tarsus. Saul experienced a sudden conversion and gnosis on the way to Damascus. Paintings of this experience usually show Saul being blinded by the noonday sun shining through a break in the clouds directly upon him.
Gene Savoy, in The Essaei Document, claimed that Saul had learned that the Essenes sungazed in order to communicate with God. When Saul tried it, he received a powerful, life-transforming message, which left him blind and temporarily insane so that he could not eat or drink for three days. In 1840, Dr. Gustav Fechner, the father of psychophysics, experimented with gazing at the sun through coloured filters and liquids. He did it at noon and, as a result, became blind and insane. However, after much prayer and meditation in a dark room, he recovered his sight and sanity and more. He began seeing auras and angels, whom he called “beings from the sun.”
Socrates taught in his academy that personal transformation was only possible through understanding the word of God, the Light, and that it was attained only through inner illumination absorbed from the sun. Apparently, Saul the persecutor was transformed by the sun into Paul the proselytiser.
Clement of Alexandria recorded that Paul, before going to Rome, said that he would bring to the brethren the Gnosis, or tradition of the hidden mysteries, as the fulfilment of the blessings of Christ, who, Clement says, reveals the secret knowledge and trains the Gnostic by mysteries, that is, revelations made in the state of higher consciousness. Such a state can be attained through deep meditation, chanting and sungazing. Unfortunately, Paul was arrested in Rome and a few years later executed. His true teachings on the mysteries of the sun were lost for several centuries until they were resurrected in Armenia and Syria during the late seventh century by the Paulicians. This group was so named because their teachings were the Gnostic mysteries handed down from St. Paul when he brought them to the Balkans and Syria during his ministry.
The Paulicians were persecuted and diminished in the ninth century, although until relatively recently there existed an Armenian sun cult whose adherents were known as Arevorti, “children of the sun.” In the tenth century, a new Gnostic movement, the Bogomils, arose in Bulgaria, which carried many of the same beliefs and practices of the Paulicians, including sun worship. However, their teachings were based on the Gospel of John.
At the beginning of the 12th century, Byzantium started to persecute the Bogomils. Many were killed, but some fled to Italy, southern France and elsewhere. By the middle of the 12th century, Gnostic schools like the Knights Templars and Cathars had sprung up and spread throughout Western Europe. These were the Western European counterparts of the Eastern European Bogomils.
The Cathars “pure ones” and the Knights Templars were concentrated in the Languedoc and Midi regions of Southern France. The Cathars claimed to possess the Book of Love (AMOK) the original initiatory version of the Book of John (the only gospel the Cathars, Knights Templars and Bogomils read) which likely contained the solar mysteries. It taught that a spark or tiny sun of the Christ Light dwelt in man’s heart and it revealed how to nurture it like a seed of divinity so that it blossomed into the rose of the original rosy-cross mystery school. This teaching, which reputedly could transform a human into a divine being, once belonged to Thutmose III, Akhenaton, Moses, Solomon, Jesus, and John the Beloved. It was reputed to be able to dissolve all hatred, anger and jealousy from the hearts of men.
The Cathars believed that the key to this divine transformation was the correct understanding of the symbolism of the Eucharist, that is, the bread and wine and the Holy Grail. The light of the sun is the bread; its warmth is the wine. The Holy Grail is the brain’s third ventricle or cavity containing the pineal and pituitary glands (Figure 7, page 58).
This secret, known to the Cathars as the consolamentum (“with the sun in the mind”), was kept hidden from the uninitiated. The Cathars believed man entered the kingdom of God through his soul, the seat of which was considered by Descartes to be the pineal gland. The Cathars believed that the solar elements of the Eucharist transubstantiated into the body and blood of Christ within themselves. The world transubstantiation comes from the Latin trans,across, and substantia, substance. This substance or glandular secretion, caught by the Holy Grail (the third ventricle), is what the Hindus call Amrita, “the elixir of immortality” and the Greeks called Ambrosia, “the nectar of the gods.”
William Henry, in Mary Magdalene: The Illuminator, wrote, “All the occult mysteries speak of a key that is required to unlock mystical secrets of enlightenment. Specifically, the lost secret of the Templars… is about building a better human through the release of secretions from the astounding manufacturing plant of spiritual oils, the human brain. This oil or essence was the key secret of Mary Magdalene and the Essenes, recovered by the Templars from between the temples. The skull [specifically the third ventricle] is… the Cup of Life, the Grail, that catches these secretions from the brain… The Templars’ ultimate objective was to restore true Gnostic monotheism to the world, uniting Christianity, Judaism and Islam in a New Kingdom of Heaven on Earth. The ‘new’ humans that inhabited this New Jerusalem (or New Atlantis) would know and embody the secret of the Kingdom of Heaven within the brain and its capability of producing… the elixir of life, the Sacred Soma, the tonic of immortality, for these terms all refer to the cosmic essence or brain substance.” It was also called Christos (anointing oil) by the Essenes.
Like their forerunners, the Bogomils, the Cathars engaged in chanting. This along with sungazing was the key to activating the pineal gland and producing the oil of Christos. The use of mantras and chanting can awaken the pineal because it sits above the mouth suspended in the third ventricle, a chamber filled with cerebrospinal fluid. Its location above the mouth in a fluid chamber makes the pineal gland quite uniquely positioned to respond to sonic vibrations. Manly P. Hall, in The Opening of the Third Eye, stated that the pineal gland “vibrating at a very high rate of speed, is the actual cause of true spiritual illumination.”
The bliss that is experienced during sungazing and chanting is not just a natural high. According to William Henry, bliss is created by Christos and is a state of extreme happiness and freedom from attachment, conditioned responses and fear. It is the key required to enter the Kingdom of Heaven. Omraam Mikhael Aivanhov said that only those who are happy and carefree like children can enter the Kingdom of Heaven.
The teachings of the Cathars posed quite a threat to the fledgling Catholic Church. Unlike the Cathars, the Church of Rome clearly did not produce a substance that gave people an experience of divine bliss. And if it did, it would keep it from the people. That’s why the Church had to exterminate them.
Fortunately, today we live in an age of spiritual freedom and anyone can teach and learn the science of the spoken word and techniques of sungazing presented by sun yogi Hira Ratan Manek and others. Although the light of the Cathars was snuffed out in the 13th century, at the beginning of the 20th century, the teachings of the Bogomils were revived by the master Peter Deunov and his chief disciple, Omraam Mikhail Aivanhov.
The Mysteries of the Sun Revealed
On January 31, 1900, Mikhael Aivanhov was born into a poor family in Serbtzi, a small village of Macedonia. Throughout his childhood and adolescence, he was inspired by reading the Gospel of John, lives of the saints and books on yoga, which led him, at the age of fifteen, to an experience of illumination or samadhi.
He went to the seashore to gaze at the sunrise. After meditating and sungazing for a little while, he sensed the presence of a heavenly being. Suddenly bathed in a cloud of brilliant light, he was plunged into a state of ecstasy. Later, he commented: “It was so beautiful that I was beside myself. To see such a being, with all those colours, all that light! He was almost invisible in the extraordinary luminosity that surrounded him. I found myself flooded with light. I was in a state of bliss, of ecstasy so immense, so powerful, that I no longer knew where I was. It was a delirious joy; it was heaven; it was the universe! Ever since then I have felt that if God were not all beauty I could not believe in him. It is beauty that remains in my mind as the one essential: neither power, nor knowledge, nor wealth, nor glory. Only beauty!”
On the basis of his own spiritual experiences and of his reading of what he called the “Book of Nature,” he discovered the mysteries of the sun before being taught them by Peter Deunov. Mikhael and his master would go together to meditate in the pre-dawn stillness and watch the sun rise. Deunov also gave him the basic methods and exercises in mantra, prayer and sacred song: the mysteries of the spoken word.
In 1959, he travelled to India, where he visited numerous ashrams and met several spiritual leaders. He was welcomed by several renowned Hindu sages as an accomplished master in his own right. One adept hailed him as a “solar rishi.” Another gave him his spiritual name, Omraam. One of the masters he met was the immortal bodhisattva, Babaji, who in 1992 and 1998 gave his blessings to another teacher of sungazing, sun yogi Hira Ratan Manek.
Central to Omraam’s teaching is the concept of light. He saw in light the first emanation of the Divine, retaining the Divine’s qualities more than any other manifestation. As he insisted: “Light is a living spirit which comes from the sun and which establishes a direct relationship with our own spirit.” He explains how we can use light to transform ourselves and become radiant as the sun. In The Splendour of Tiphareth, he wrote, “Only the sun’s rays are capable of replacing all that is impure, worn out or obscure within you, and they can only do so if you learn to receive them. If you welcome them with your whole heart, they will begin their work of replacing the ‘old man’ in you, so that you will be wholly regenerated, renewed and resuscitated; your thoughts, feelings and acts will all be different. Only the sun’s rays are capable of working this transformation within you.”
Omraam loved to talk about the Spirit of the sun. In this respect his philosophy coincided with the age-old mysteries of the sun, which taught that the true sun is not the star that is visible in the sky, but the invisible spiritual sun, the source of all life, light and love.
He pointed out that, “On the physical, material level, the sun is the door, the link and the medium thanks to which we can make contact with the Lord… Through the sun, we work with God Himself. I can say that certain things that no human can teach me have been revealed to me by the sun. No book can give you what the sun gives you if you learn to have the proper relationship with him… If you want to create a bond between you [and the sun], you have to look at him in all consciousness. If you do that there will be a communication of vibrations between the sun and you in which forms and colours, a whole new world, will be born… The sun is an intelligence, a life, a living light. And when you understand that, all of a sudden he begins to speak to you… Try asking him a question and you will see that he will answer you.”
Omraam died in 1986, but his teachings on the mysteries of the sun live on in numerous books. Over 90 books have been published in English, and there are enough notes from his hundreds of lectures to fill another 400 books. Of these books, the ones that are primarily concerned with the mysteries of the sun are The Splendour of Tiphareth: The Yoga of the Sun, Toward a Solar Civilization and Light is a Living Spirit. Louise-Marie Frenette’s newly-released biography of Omraam Mikhael Aivanhov, The Life of a Master in the West, has just been published in New Zealand by First Edition Press (to order call +64 (04) 586-1973). Today, his teachings and sungazing rituals are practiced by the I.D.E.A.L. Society, The Hearts Center and other spiritual communities around the world.
Quite the story actually. What becomes clear is that land availability was ample and that migrant peoples came in by sea from Eurasia and south including Peru. These peoples were settled but also quite able to move a long distance and to immediately resettle. Their land use protocol was easily abandoned and restarted elsewhere which is well to keep in mind.
We learn that around 2400 BC we had huge disruptive floods in Ireland forcing evacuation. That surely meant that the land was ruined for a generation or so. This coincides with the abrupt emergence of the Atlantean world as well and may well have triggered its founding.
All interesting and a welcome historical reconstruction.
WHEN DID THE MUSKOGEAN PEOPLES ARRIVE IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES?
Posted by Richard Thornton | Sep 18, 2016 |
Nowadays, Native American scholars typically are focused on proving that their tribe is the “Master Race”. That becomes a major problem with all the Muskogeans, except the Choctaws, because their ancestry could best be described as Heinz 57 varieties and their ancestors moved all over the place. There are seven distinct migration legends associated with the Creek Indians alone. Those legends describe homelands separated by thousands of miles of mountains, plains and ocean.
Long ago, academicians created the ethnic label “Muskogean” for the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Alabama, Koasati, Muskogee, Hitchiti, Miccosukee and Apalachee Peoples of the Southeast. It was derived from the name of the Muskogee Creeks. Ironically, Muskogee-Creek is the most aberrant of the Muskogean languages, while Apalache, Kusabo, Okate, Itsate and Miccosukee Creeks have very little in common with the Choctaws, genetically. Hitchitis, Miccosukees and Koasatis look like tall Highland Mayas. The Choctaws look like the aboriginal people of Tamaulipas State in Northeastern Mexico. The Chickasaws, Muskogees and Upper Creeks look like the non-Nahuatl Peoples of Central and East Central Mexico.
The Muskogean language group should have been called “Choctawian. The ethnic history of the Choctaws seems to indicate that their language through mixing with other languages produced the other Muskogean ethnic groups. As will be discussed in a later section, architectural history suggests that the core ancestors of the Choctaws have been living in the same place since the creation of Watson Brake around 3400 BC. However, even the Choctaws took in lots of their neighbors after the Holocaust.
When I was in college, textbooks taught a simplistic concept of the past that was akin to the histories one reads in Chamber of Commerce tourist brochures today. Tourists are told that the last federally recognized tribe to live in their particular region had lived there for thousands of years. I only know of three counties in the United States that accurately brag of being an aboriginal home for the Uchee . . . Taliaferro County, GA on the Ogeechee River near the Fall Line, plus Allendale County, SC and Effingham County, GA on the Lower Savannah River.
When did people speaking “proto-Muskogean” enter the region east of the Mississippi-Alabama Line? It is a very tough question that really has not been answered. There is conflicting evidence that suggests very complex ethnic histories for today’s federally-recognized tribes.
Total Extinction Date: All life on the Atlantic Coast from Ossabaw Island, GA to Cape Canaveral, FL would have been destroyed by a 100+ (33m+) high tsunami in 539 AD. The tsunami was caused by an asteroid or comet that struck off the Florida Coast from the southeast at a very low apogee. The tsunami debris ridge is still over 85 feet (26m) tall about 12 miles inland on the Altamaha River. Flood waters would have extended about 75 miles inland in Southeast Georgia.
The debris ridge in Florida is less pronounced, but there the flanks of the tsunami wave obliterated the coastal islands and pushed their land inland to join with the mainland. The original mouth of the St. Johns River at St. Augustine was blocked by this catastrophic event.
Migration legends by order of arrival
A consistent trait of all the Creek migration legends is that they do not include supernatural events like those of the Chinese, Middle Easterners, Greeks, Romans and Scandinavians. Being monotheistic peoples, there are no gods, goddesses or magical demons.. Virtually all their contents read like “real” history. The reader will note that a majority of the members of the 1717 Creek Confederacy did NOT have ancestors, who were ethnic Muskogeans, living in the Mississippi River Basin. They would have originally spoken languages quite different than Choctaw.
The Uchee traveled by boat from across the Atlantic. Their originally lived in the “Home of the Sun.” They originally settled on Edisto, Pon Pon, Savannah and Ogeechee Rivers. There was no one living in the Southeast, when they arrived, but signs that people had lived there before them. The Uchee eventually established trading center villages all over the Southeast. The Uchee said that the Algonquians were living in North America before them, but not in the Lower Southeast.
The Savano (Southern Shawnee) believe that they are descendants of the Lenape (Delaware), who traveled southward to enjoy a warmer climate. Some Shawnee later migrated northward to the Ohio Valley, where they became associated with the Hopewell Culture. The Shawnee disagree completely with the current Cherokee story that they were late arrivals to the Southeast, who came to the North Carolina Mountains as squatters after the Cherokees were well-established.
Linguistics and colonial maps support the Shawnee version of history. Algonquian and Muskogean languages have words similar to the archaic Shawano (now: Shaawanwa) meaning “south”. However, the stem shaawa- does not mean “south” in Shawnee, but “moderate, warm weather”.
The ancestors of the (Georgia) Apalache arrived by water from the south with other kindred people. Their first great town was located where Downtown Savannah is today. They then spread outward. The villages of these sea peoples, living around the edge of Lake Tama, first developed the Apalache Culture. Their capitals graduation moved northward until the last one was in the lower Georgia Mountains.
The Kaushebo (Cusabo, Kusa) arrived by water from the south. They settled in the estuaries north of the Savannah River in what is now the South Carolina. Apparently, some of their descendants became the elite of the Kusa Province in Northwest Georgia. The Upper Creeks still call themselves Kauche, which the original Panoan (Peruvian) name of the Kusa.
The Middle Woodland Period Copena People of northern Alabama and Apalache People of Georgia created mummies by coating bodies with clay. This is an ancient Peruvian tradition that has no equivalent with any other Native people in Eastern North America.
The Chickasaw originally were one and the same as the Choctaw, but are descended from less conservative villages that wanted to venture out. In their migration legend this schism is described as a disagreement between two brothers, Chakta and Chikisa. In Chickasaw tradition, their ancestors traveled far to the east, before turning around returning as far as Northern Alabama and Western Tennessee. As will be discussed further in the article, archaeology backs up that belief.
Today, the Chickasaws believe that their ancestors were the creators of the Copena Culture in northern Alabama. That is questionable. The Copena People mummified their dead by coating them with clay. This custom was also practiced by the peoples of western Peru, beginning around 5,000 BC. The Apalache also mummified their elite by coating them with white clay. This suggests that the Woodland Period Copena Culture was developed by immigrants from Peru.
The Oconee arrived by water from the south. They first became a distinct people while living on islands in the Okefenokee Swamp and the edge of the swamp. Some of the people stayed in the swamp basin, but others established colonies farther and farther north on a True North line, originating on Billy’s Island, where the Oconees maintained a Temple of the Sun, staffed with beautiful priestesses.
The Itsate Creeks stated that their ancestors came by water from the south. Itsate is also what the Itza Mayas called themselves. Their first towns were near a great lake (probably Lake Okeechobee, but possibly farther north.) They then moved into a wetland covered by reeds (probably the Everglades, but possibly the South Atlantic tidal marshes. When invaders arrived in Florida, the Itsate then paddled by water until they arrived where Savannah, GA is now located. One band of Itsate paddled up the Savannah River and settled in the Appalachian Mountains and the Upper Chattahoochee River. Another band paddled up the Ocmulgee River and settled where Ocmulgee Mounds is today.
The Koweta Creeks believed that they had once lived near the Mississippi River, but began migrating eastward when food became scarce in their homeland. A magic stick with a fish on top pointed the way eastward. This fish may have contained magnets. The Koweta first settled in the Appalachian Mountains and then spread southwestward as vassals of the Apalache. High king Chikili told officials in Savannah that Parasi (Palache) could be used as their name instead of Koweta
The Georgia Apalache stated that the people in northern Florida that the Spanish call Apalache, do not call themselves that, but rather Tulahiwalsee . . . which means “Highland Towns.” A great Apalache queen ordered that a wide road be built to connect the high mountains (Smoky Mountains) with the Gulf of Mexico. Then it was called the Nene Hvtke Rakko (Great White Path) but today is US 129 highway. Many people came across the water from the south to settle among the Tulahiwalsee. Over time, the newcomers changed their language so much that it was unintelligible to the Apalache. However, the two peoples remained allies and trading partners.
The Kashita (Kusate) Creeks were the last branch of the Creek Confederacy to arrive in the Southeast. They originated on the flanks of the Orizaba Volcano in western Vera Cruz. Persecution by several, more advanced civilizations caused them to wander back and forth along the Bloody (Jamapo) River until they followed the Great White Path along the Gulf Coast to what is now the Mississippi River Valley. They did not like the environs of the Mississippi River and so soon traveled eastward until they were allowed to settle in the province of the Kusa. This is how they got their name
Today, the Kashita no longer remember their original name. Kusate (actually Kvsete) indicates that they were originally vassals of the Kaushe (Kusa) elite. Their name was possibly Takesta. Aztec chronicles tell of a tall people, named theTakesteca in Nahua, who were more primitive that their Toltec kin. They lived at the foot of the Orizaba Volcano, until driven out of Mexico by the Aztecs around 1400 AD. One period of pottery found at Hiwasee Island, TN is unlike any other in the Southeast, but identical to the pottery made along the mountainous border between Vera Cruz and Oaxaca States, Mexico.
Oklahoma Mvskoke focused research
The most recent (Muskogee-dominated) Creek Confederacy was founded in 1717. Most of the Creeks, still affiliated with it, were forced to relocate 500-900 miles away between 1827 and1836. In the +/- 186 years since then, the Muskogee-Creek people in Oklahoma have continued to evolve, heavily influenced by intermarriage and interaction with other tribes in the Southern Plains.
Since much of the research into Muskogean history and linguistics occurs in Oklahoma, professors assume that Muskogee was THE Creek language and that ALL the Muskogees were major players in the mound-building business. They appear not to know that Highland Apalache and several dialects of Itsate (Hitchiti) were originally the dominate Creek languages. No academicians seem to know that Apalasikora (Apalachicola) is a South American word that has no meaning in Muskogee.
Muskogee was only adopted as the official trade & parliamentary language in 1717, because it was spoken by Koweta, then the dominant province. However, until around 1785, more people spoke Hitchiti in Georgia than English!
According to Creek leaders in the early 1700s, the original Creek Confederacy did not include Muskogee speakers and in fact, Muskogee speakers were the primary enemies of this alliance. The original Creek Confederacy in the 1600s was composed of the Alabama, Chickasaw, Kusate and Apike.
This is reinforced by my own family traditions. I did not realize that the Muskogees were Creeks until I was in my early 20s. Growing up, the Muskogees were remembered as the aggressive enemies of the Creeks and far more dangerous than the Cherokees. According to this family lore, an alliance of Creek and Uchee tribes in eastern Georgia and South Carolina fought the invading Muskogee-speakers to a standstill in a great battle in the center of Georgia. Afterward, a second Creek Confederacy was formed with Itchesi (Ochesee) as the capital and Hitchiti as its official language. However, the Chickasaw, Kusate and Muskogee speakers were included in this alliance.
The majority of Hitchiti-speaking Creeks dropped out of the Creek Confederacy after the American Revolution, when the British Tory, Alexander McGillivray moved the capital to Pensacola. They either assimilated with their Anglo-American neighbors or moved to southern Georgia and northern Florida. Their descendants became the Seminole and Miccosukee Peoples.
The Hitchiti and Apalachicola were staunch allies of the Patriots and later, the United States government, until Muskogee-speakers, William McIntosh and William Weatherford signed the Treaty of Fort Jackson in 1814. It gave away all Hitchiti and Apalachicola lands in Georgia and Alabama, but kept the Muskogee lands in Georgia under the control of McIntosh. This event is what spawned the creation of a distinct Seminole tribe.
Can you read this 1,000 year old section of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles? Old English became a written language around 600 AD. Think how more starkly Muskogean languages have changed in that period. The Apalache elite had a writing system, but most Muskogeans were apparently illiterate.
Linguists in la-la land
Unless they read People of One Fire, Southeastern academicians still hold to a mythology created by a handful of linguists in the 1970s that chose to make a Muskogean language as the topic of their dissertation. Very few ever developed intellectually past their dissertation. All assumed that a language very similar to modern Choctaw was spoken by all the ancestors of the Chickasaws, Apalachee, Miccosukees, Muskogees, Seminoles, Alabamas and Koasatis 3,500 years ago. They then used mathematical formulas to estimate the length of time back in history when each one of the Muskogean languages “separated” from each other.
The presumption was that individual bands of Muskogeans moved east and instantly cut all communication with anybody else in the Southeast. In that isolation the original Choctaw words evolved at a mathematically calculated rate. Even to this day, many archaeologists believe that “trade” in the Southeast consisted of the bartering of a few “prestige goods” from neighbor to neighbor. From those calculations, they said that the “Creeks” moved to Georgia around 1500 BC. Horse manure!
None of these academicians seemed to be the least aware that the individual provinces of the Creek Confederacy originally spoke languages as different as those in the nations of Western Europe. Yet, in Eastern Tennessee and Northern Georgia, the Kusate Creeks and the Chickasaws built their towns adjacent to each other. Archaeologists called them the Dallas and Mouse Creek Cultures. Further south the Oconee Creeks and Uchee Water Clan built their towns adjacent to each other. The elite of the Apalache Creeks lived in different towns and spoke a different language than Apalache Commoners.
Apparently, in 2005, I became the first person in history to place Creek and Mesoamerican dictionaries on the same table together and compare words. I was an architect, merely doing the ancillary type of research we always do in historic preservation. At the time, I was curious why the houses in the suburbs of Chichen Itza in 1000 AD were identical to the houses in Etowah Mounds in 1000 AD. The Totonacs of northern Vera Cruz, the Itza Mayas of Southern Mexico and the Hitchiti Creeks of the Southeast all use the same word for house – chiki.
In the decade since then, POOF members have found many, many words in the Muskogean languages that were borrowed from peoples in Mesoamerica and South America. In the case of the Creeks, that process probably occurred via intermarriage of immigrants with previous immigrants into the Southeast. When a language such as Itsate or Mvskoke is a hybrid of many languages, rather than a language isolate as presumed by academicians, the mathematical formulas used by the linguists to time the arrival of Muskogean immigrants become poppycock.
No matter how much “professional” ethnologists and archaeologists posture their image before the media; wriggle to avoid accountability for the stupid public statements they’ve made; or in their minds make grand alliances with the Tribal Cultural Preservation Office of federally-recognized tribes, the fact is that their failure to translate the recorded words of the indigenous people, who still are very much alive today, represents a gross incompetence.
Failure of anthropologists to learn the languages of a living people being studied would be totally unacceptable in any other nation in the world. Can you imagine the brouhaha that would occur, if Canadian archaeologists unearthed an Algonquian village in Quebec, without first translating the Native names and words, recorded by a French explorer, who visited that village and placed it on a map? That is the current situation in the Creek Homeland.\
The oldest known pottery in North America, Stallings Island, is found in the Lower Savannah River Basin and dates from about 2350 BC . . . the exact time that there were massive floods in Ireland, which forced the complete evacuation of the island. The oldest shell mounds on the coasts of southern South Carolina and Georgia coincide with the appearance of Stallings Island pottery.
Obviously, the circumstantial evidence suggests that pottery was introduced by refugees from Western Europe. In fact, as POOF has mentioned before, Savannah River Uchee, Mvskoke and the aboriginal (Pre-Gaelic) language of Ireland, western Scotland, Ireland and western France all used the same word for water . . . “ue” or “we”. There was a tradition on the western edge of building shell mounds prior to the Great Flood between 2065 BC and 2045 BC.
However, this does not mean that such immigrants were Indo-Europeans (Caucasians). Geneticists have recent discovered that the same regions that originally used “ue” for water also have a high level of Haplogroup C6 DNA. C6 DNA was formerly assumed to be typical of Asia.
The proto-Creek ceramic tradition began around 1200 BC in the same region. It is called Deptford Style pottery, after the English name of a mound in Savannah, GA. The Deptford Culture spread outward from Savannah to eventually occupy much of the lower Southeast. The fact that it began in Savannah negates a proto-Choctaw (aka Muskogean) origin. Yet the Uchee, Apalache and Itsate all have migration legends that they arrived in North America by water and landed at or near Savannah. So a sizable portion of the Creek Confederacy’s members were not originally of Muskogean ancestry.
During the Middle Woodland Period, the aboriginal Deptford ceramic tradition was partially replaced by artistic traditions from eastern Peru, Swift Creek and Napier. In the Late Woodland Period and early Southeastern Ceremonial Cult Period, shell-tempered and Redware pottery was introduced from either Mesoamerica or the Caribbean Basin.
The earliest known and most ornate Swift Creek pottery is found at the southern edge of its territory, the Mandeville site on the Chattahoochee River. However, archaeologist Arthur Kelly found in 1961 that some pottery of earlier styles were always made at Mandeville. There was no abrupt change from one style to another. Thus, it is highly unlike that any particular ethnic group replaced another.
A similar discovery was made by archaeologist Dan Bigman in 2011 at Ocmulgee National Monument. Bigman was surprised to learn that Woodland Period pottery styles and “Mississippian Culture” pottery styles were being made at the same time. Individual neighborhoods within Ocmulgee’s acropolis contained varying proportions of up to six styles of pottery.
While living in the Nacoochee Valley of Georgia, ancestors of the Chickasaw made several types of pottery that differed little from their neighbors. Those Chickasaw, who moved westward into northern Alabama gradually evolved their own pottery styles during the Southeastern Ceremonial Cult Period.
There is no specific point in time, in which one can say, “This is a pottery style introduced by Choctaw (i.e. Pure Muskogean) immigrants arriving from the west.” In fact, there does not appear to be ANY cultural influence coming from the Mississippi River Basin, where the Choctaws lived, despite the labeling of the most advanced cultural period being “Mississippian”. In contrast, several Muskogean migration legends describe a people that originally lived where the Choctaws live and then traveling eastward.
The architectural history of the Choctaws began at least by 3400 BC with the construction of Watson Brake Earthworks in northeastern Louisiana. It consisted of a circular earthwork with hemispherical mounds on top. This architectural theme continued for the next 5,200 years until the Choctaws and their neighbors ceased building mounds.
The Choctaw architectural tradition is NOT seen at any site east of Moundville, AL. Moundville consists of a necklace of mounds around a U-shaped plaza, with a large principal mound near the center. So it is not certain that even Moundville’s architecture evolved from Choctaw traditions.
Mound-building in the Creek homeland began slightly earlier than in the Mississippi Basin. Should we be surprised that the oldest known mound in North America is the Bilbo Mound in Savannah? It was begun around 3,550 BC and was oval shaped.
Although almost perfectly circular shell rings were erected on the South Atlantic Coast from around 2,300 BC to 1,800 BC, mounds in the Creek Homeland were oval until around 0 AD when the construction of pyramidal rectangular mounds began. Pyramidal mounds were constructed between around 200 BC and 1250 AD. However, some oval mound continued to be erected until around 1600 AD.
Beginning around 750 AD or slightly earlier the five sided Kenimer Mound was constructed in the Nacoochee Valley of Georgia. Prior to that time, the only pentagonal mounds were in the highlands of Chiapas, Guatemala and Belize. Between around 1250 and 1375 AD the principal mounds in Proto-Creek towns were pentagonal. Their construction continued on the Lower Chattahoochee River until around 1600 AD or later. From 1375 AD until 1650 AD almost all new mounds in Georgia, East Tennessee and Western North Carolina were oval . . . shaped almost identically to the mounds built 1500 to 2000 years later.
Spiral mounds can be found in Central Mexico and in Georgia. Those in Mexico are slightly older. The ones in Georgia have not been thoroughly radiocarbon dated, but probably were built in the period from 1200 AD to 1600 AD.
During the same general era that the Kenimer Mound was constructed a village was developed immediately to the west, which contained all the elements of the Chickasaw architectural traditions. These include oval houses with off-center doors and hearths, oval plazas, modest oval burial mounds and rectangular mounds of modest size. On top of one of the mounds was public building, identical to Chickasaw council houses to this day. It had a large central wooden column and four smaller wood posts.
Some Chickasaws always lived in North Georgia and Southwest Georgia until the late 1700s. However, but the main concentration of their population shifted westward into northern Alabama and southeastern Tennessee around 1200 AD.
The oval mounds in the Southeast were indigenous. The rectangular pyramidal mounds apparently came from Peru. The square and pentagonal pyramidal mounds came from Mesoamerica. The tradition, post-ditch, prefabricated Creek chiki definitely came from the Totonacs or Itza Mayas. It is again a case of there being no evidence of movement of population from the Mississippi River Basin to the Southeast.
Earliest probable date of Muskogean immigration
There is no solid evidence of an ethnic Muskogean people . . . that is, Choctaw or Chickasaw . . . being in the region east of the state of Mississippi before the Late Woodland Period (600 AD-900 AD). The ancestors of the Chickasaw possibly entered Northern Alabama at a slightly earlier date, but there is at this time, no genetic or architectural evidence to prove an earlier migration.
The abandonment of many Swift Creek towns and villages on the western edge of Georgia between 450 AD and 650 AD may represent an invasion from the west by Chickasaws. These abandonments may also represent the arrival of another ethnic group from the south or may be environmental in nature. So far, nothing has been found to prove that the people, who replace the Swift Creek culture were Muskogeans. The Sweet Potato Village (site 9FU14) on the Chattahoochee River near Six Flags Over Georgia was abandoned around 450 AD.
The large Leake town site on the Etowah River near Cartersville, GA is the most likely candidate for the impact of Muskogean invaders. Its abandonment date is very close to the appearance of a people in the Nacoochee Valley and on the Upper Savannah River, who were definitely the ancestors of the modern Chickasaw People . . . and ultimately through intermarriage and cultural assimilation the many branches of Creek Confederacy.
|This content is not yet available over encrypted connections.|