- March 2013 - Posted my paper introducing Cloud Cosmology & neutral neutrino rigorously described, September 2010 I am pleased to report that my essay titled A NEW METRIC WITH APPLICATIONS TO PHYSICS AND SOLVING CERTAIN HIGHER ORDERED DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS' has been published by Physics Essays published by the American Institute of Physics and appeared in their June 2010 quarterly. 40 years ago I took an honors degree in applied mathematics from the University of Waterloo. My interest was Relativity and my last year there saw me complete a 900 level course under Hanno Rund on his work in relativity,as well as differential geometry(pure math) and of course analysis. I continued researching new ideas and knowledge since that time and I have prepared a book for publication titled 'Paradigms Shift'. I maintain my blog as a day book and research tool to retain data and record impressions and interpretations on material read. Do take this moment to join my blog and receive Four items of interest daily Monday through Saturday.
Tuesday, March 6, 2012
Seattle Plants a Public Forest
We need to start somewhere. Urban trees are critical to the health of the surrounding air and for local temperature moderation. This fact has slowly been understood and accepted. Even as important are urban food bearing trees. These have to be maintained and importantly, they need to be kept away from walkways because of the problem of droppage.
A well maintained plum tree is a joy. Maintenance means individual responsibility for the tree and a final harvesting right to perhaps half the fruit that is out of reach. Once planted the responsible person does come out often and that usually means almost every day to inspect the tree for damage and disease. The plum has a nasty black canker that is easily removed in the first weeks but ruins the tree if allowed to keep going.
These trees will be in parks and will soon be large enough to also provide shade. I think one should avoid the trap of planting small dwarfs on a robust root stalk if one can. This is more trouble to harvest and maintain, but leaves plenty of understory to also work with. Importantly, the trees will last a long time and be productive.
The key point is that it should be possible to assign effective ownership of rights to every such tree. The individual reward is fruit for sale or putting down as preserves. Better, the parks will have natural stakeholders who will act to protect each other and the park itself from abuse.
Importantly, the individual who walks by and enjoys a couple of plums or apples will become a prime candidate to join the program.
Into the woods:
plants a public food forest Seattle
28 FEB 2012 7:35 AM
Photo by Vamapaull.
There’s a stretch of arterial in
Beacon Hill neighborhood that I’ve traveled
probably thousands of times without giving a second thought to the empty,
grassy hillside it parallels. When I heard about plans to create a seven-acre urban
food forest there, I had a hard time picturing the sloped field covered over in
rich soil and filled with a tangle of fruit and nut trees, berry bushes, and
vegetable patches. It seemed like an edible ecosystem too wild to spring from
such an unremarkable urban space. But within the next few years, this slice of
land adjacent to a city park and golf course will transform from an unofficial
off-leash dog run and occasional sledding slope into the Beacon Food Forest, which some
say will be the largest
of its kind in the U.S.
Food forests are shaping up to be the next evolution of urban farming. “A food forest is more of a perennial garden; it’s a land management system that’s based on the natural system of a forest,” said Glenn Herlihy. He designed the original plans for the BFF with classmates in a permaculture course in 2009, and, as part of a volunteer steering committee called the Friends of Beacon Food Forest, has been actively involved in nudging it to fruition ever since. While a farm or garden typically comprises rows of annual crops that require a fair amount of hands-on upkeep, a food forest incorporates trees, shrubs, and mostly perennial plants in a way that “mimics the architecture and beneficial relationships between plants and animals found in a natural ecosystem,” according to the Permaculture Institute.
“It’s catching on really fast, this food forest idea,” Herlihy said. “Many people are putting it in their own gardens. I’d been gardening that way my entire life, I just didn’t know what to call it.”
The idea of planting perennials as part of a self-sustaining, holistic system is old hat to many accomplished gardeners. And groups around the country like the Boston Tree Party,
San Francisco’s Urban Orchard
Project, and City Fruit in are already
dedicated to planting and harvesting from urban fruit trees and orchards. But
creating a system on public land that combines the concepts of urban farms,
orchards, and natural forest, and depending on collaborative community effort
to keep it going, represents uncharted territory for the now-flourishing
urban-farming movement. Seattle
Laura Raymond, who works with the Seattle Department of Neighborhoods’ P-Patch community garden program, said she’s seen increasing interest in permaculture in recent years. “There’s a growing interest in gardening, in people connecting to food and where food comes from,” she said. “There’s also this growing interest in berries and fruit trees and orchards. Permaculture is a way for people to see all these things coming together.”
The BFF falls under the administrative umbrella of the P-Patch program. As with the neighborhood gardens, individuals and families will be able to purchase garden plots in the BFF for a small yearly fee, with the expectation that they’ll also contribute to the creation of the greater forest. Eventually, the goal is for BFF’s seven acres to be filled with garden plots, fruit and nut trees, community play fields, a kids’ area, a wetland, a community gathering spot, and an area devoted to native plants, including “craft-minded” species like willows and dogwoods ideal for traditional basket weaving. A local beekeeper will also keep hives onsite, providing the diverse array of plants with natural pollinators.
Ideally, a food forest’s more self-sufficient ecosystem would make it “an easier and less labor-intensive method for public gardening,” Herlihy said. But that method of collective urban agriculture remains untested on a widespread scale, and, Raymond cautioned, isn’t necessarily simpler.
“Working in a collaborative model requires a different sort of engagement, sometimes a higher level of involvement, than if a space is divided up and people steward their own area,” she said.
Plans for the food forest's final layout (click to enlarge).
A requirement for more intense engagement could mesh perfectly with the Friends of Beacon Food Forest’s commitment to making education a part of the BFF’s mission. Herlihy said they’re looking at ways to partner with the nearby middle school, high school, and
— possibly by
putting in wheelchair-accessible paths so hospital patients can garden, too.
The BFF could be many things to the community — a food source, a place to grow
culturally significant flowers and herbs, a learning space, or simply a place
to stroll — and that wealth of possibility presents both a challenge and an
exciting opportunity. Veterans
“This neighborhood is quite ethnically and culturally diverse,” Raymond said. She and other community members are considering how “all those different cultures [can] participate and see something of themselves reflected.” In some ways, the very nature of permaculture — which looks to bring together plants from far-flung places that can work together in new ways — reflects the way a diverse community functions at its best.
The BFF breaks ground this year with the help of a $100,000 grant through the Parks and Green Spaces Levy, a $146-million initiative approved by
voters in 2008,
part of which goes to support community gardens. Some of the forest’s budget
will be dedicated to outreach among Seattle Beacon Hill’s
multicultural residents, many of whom are new immigrants. The bulk of the
funding will cover the grading, structural development, and finally, planting
of the forest’s first 1.75 acres. The grant expires at the end of the year,
increasing the incentive to hit the ground running.
“Within the next year, [the BFF] will sort of find its groove,” Herlihy said. “We would like to have people growing stuff by the end of this year.”
Making the BFF a reality involved jumping through some bureaucratic hoops, given the special nature of its site. The empty field where the food forest will soon be actually sits adjacent to one of two reservoirs that were moved underground due to national security concerns after 9/11. The land belongs to
Public Utilities but will be managed by the P-Patch program, under the
Department of Neighborhoods. Seattle
Both Herlihy and Raymond stress that despite the practical hassle of negotiating an agreement between city agencies to support an unprecedented, ambitious project, they’ve felt nothing but positive encouragement from
have found an unbelievable amount of support … everywhere from the city council
to the mayor’s office to city departments,” Herlihy said. Seattle
It also helps that
North Beacon Hill
had already been identified as a priority area for expanding community
Not every city has such a friendly attitude toward urban agriculture, though recent popular outrage over urban gardeners faced with jail time has helped draw attention to the need for policy that’s aligned with this national case of gardening fever.
’s P-Patch program already provides a
successful example of the good that comes out of government support for urban
gardening. And if the BFF takes off, it could inspire urban food policy to
embrace food forests elsewhere. Seattle
Friends of Beacon Food Forest says an added inspiration to move forward on the plan came when it heard that the site was being looked at as a potential parking lot for users of the adjacent park’s golf course, tennis courts, and playfields. Unfortunately for those who drive, the forest was approved. And, Herlihy says, the limited parking in the area “is just going to have to encourage people to use other forms of transportation.”
Of course some disgruntled would-be drivers might feel better if they can pick some fruit fresh from the forest after their games.
Claire Thompson is an editorial assistant at Grist.