Monday, March 26, 2012
I think it is time to start a debate on having a cashless society as it is now becoming practical. The real loss will be secrecy and I am sorry to say that I actually have no problem with that. After much thought and far too many years of experience in human nature, I have come to a singular conclusion. Secrecy never benefits the innocent or innocent intent. If in fact such examples can be constructed, then we can construct an exemption.
There will certainly be an exemption for commercial secrecy, but by the same token, I think even that needs to be rethought and truly justified as gaming the books is difficult to do in broad daylight.
Most surely the first victim will be all forms of criminal enterprise itself that will be driven into some form of expensive barter arrangement that encumbers the trade and makes it even more conspicuous.
In the meantime we have
an open experiment to help us learn. Sweden
Vicar Johan Tyrberg in the Carl Gustaf Church in Karlshamn, southern
on Sept 7, 2011, stands next to a credit card machine enabling worshippers to
donate money to the church collection without carrying money in their
pockets. (AP Photo/Camilla Lindskog) Sweden
March 18, 2012 5:09 PM
(AP) STOCKHOLM - Sweden was the first European country to introduce bank notes in 1661. Now it's come farther than most on the path toward getting rid of them.
"I can't see why we should be printing bank notes at all anymore," says Bjoern Ulvaeus, former member of 1970's pop group ABBA, and a vocal proponent for a world without cash.
The contours of such a society are starting to take shape in this high-tech nation, frustrating those who prefer coins and bills over digital money.
In most Swedish cities, public buses don't accept cash; tickets are prepaid or purchased with a cell phone text message. A small but growing number of businesses only take cards, and some bank offices — which make money on electronic transactions — have stopped handling cash altogether.
"There are towns where it isn't at all possible anymore to enter a bank and use cash," complains Curt Persson, chairman of
's National Pensioners'
He says that's a problem for elderly people in rural areas who don't have credit cards or don't know how to use them to withdraw cash.
The decline of cash is noticeable even in houses of worship, like the Carl Gustaf Church in Karlshamn, southern
, where Vicar Johan Tyrberg
recently installed a card reader to make it easier for worshippers to make
"People came up to me several times and said they didn't have cash but would still like to donate money," Tyrberg says.
Bills and coins represent only 3 percent of Sweden's economy, compared to an average of 9 percent in the eurozone and 7 percent in the U.S., according to the Bank for International Settlements, an umbrella organization for the world's central banks.
Three percent is still too much if you ask Ulvaeus. A cashless society may seem like an odd cause for someone who made a fortune on "Money, Money, Money" and other ABBA hits, but for Ulvaeus it's a matter of security.
After his son was robbed for the third time he started advocating a faster transition to a fully digital economy, if only to make life harder for thieves.
"If there were no cash, what would they do?" says Ulvaeus, 66.
The Swedish Bankers' Association says the shrinkage of the cash economy is already making an impact in crime statistics.
The number of bank robberies in
plunged from 110 in 2008 to
16 in 2011 — the lowest level since it started keeping records 30 years ago. It
says robberies of security transports are also down. Sweden
"Less cash in circulation makes things safer, both for the staff that handle cash, but also of course for the public," says Par Karlsson, a security expert at the organization.
The prevalence of electronic transactions — and the digital trail they generate — also helps explain why Sweden has less of a problem with graft than countries with a stronger cash culture, such as Italy or Greece, says economics professor Friedrich Schneider of the Johannes Kepler University in Austria.
"If people use more cards, they are less involved in shadow economy activities," says Schneider, an expert on underground economies.
In Italy — where cash has been a common means of avoiding value-added tax and hiding profits from the taxman — Prime Minister Mario Monti in December put forward measures to limit cash transactions to payments under euro1,000 ($1,300), down from euro2,500 before.
The flip side is the risk of cybercrimes. According to the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention the number of computerized fraud cases, including skimming, surged to nearly 20,000 in 2011 from 3,304 in 2000.
Oscar Swartz, the founder of Sweden's first Internet provider, Banhof, says a digital economy also raises privacy issues because of the electronic trail of transactions. He supports the idea of phasing out cash, but says other anonymous payment methods need to be introduced instead.
"One should be able to send money and donate money to different organizations without being traced every time," he says.
It's no surprise that
and other Nordic countries are at the forefront of this development, given
their emphasis on technology and innovation. Sweden
For the second year in a row,
ranked first in the Global
Information Technology Report released at the World Economic Forum in January.
The Economist Intelligence Unit also put Sweden top of its latest digital
economy rankings, in 2010. Both rankings measure how far countries have come in
integrating information and communication technologies in their economies. Sweden
Internet startups in
and elsewhere are now hard at work developing payment and banking services for
Swedish company iZettel has developed a device for small traders, similar to Square in the U.S., that plugs into the back of an iPhone to make it work like a credit card terminal.
's biggest banks are expected
to launch a joint service later this year that allows customers to transfer
money between each other's accounts in real-time with their cell phones. Sweden
Most experts don't expect cash to disappear anytime soon, but that its proportion of the economy will continue to decline as such payment options become available. Before retiring as deputy governor of
's central bank, Lars Nyberg
said last year that cash will survive "like the crocodile, even though it
may be forced to see its habitat gradually cut back." Sweden
Andrea Wramfelt, whose bowling alley in the southern city of Landskrona stopped accepting cash in 2010, makes a bolder prediction: She believes coins and notes will cease to exist in
within 20 years. Sweden
"Personally I think this is what people should expect in the future," she says.
But there are pockets of resistance. Hanna Celik, whose family owns a newspaper kiosk in a Stockholm shopping mall, says the digital economy is all about banks seeking bigger earnings.
Celik says he gets charged about 5 Swedish kronor ($0.80) for every credit card transaction, and a law passed by the Swedish Parliament prevents him from passing on that charge to consumers.
"That stinks," he says. "For them (the banks), this is a very good way to earn a lot of money, that's what it's all about. They make huge profits."
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